permission for something to happen or agreement to do something.


“that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."


to deprive a man of his traditional male role or identity. to make (something) weaker or less effective. (Oxford Dictionary)


the ability to understand and share the feelings of another. (Oxford Dictionary)


the process of becoming stronger and more confident, especially in controlling one's life, claiming one's rights (Oxford Dictionary) and having the strength and courage to help others.

enculturation (also inculturation)

the gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture, etc.


the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities. (Oxford Dictionary) Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.”


fair and impartial treatment, including equal treatment or differential treatment to redress imbalances in rights, benefits obligations and opportunities.


the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women.

gender-based violence

connotes violence that targets individuals or groups of individuals on the basis of their gender. Gender-based violence may result in physical, sexual or psychological

harm. Terms such as Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Domestic Violence are used to describe gender-based violence in its various forms.

gender bender

a person who disrupts, or “bends”, expected gender roles. Gender bending is sometimes a form of social activism undertaken to destroy rigid gender roles and defy sex-role stereotypes, notably in cases where the gender-nonconforming person finds these roles oppressive. It can be a reaction to, and protest of, homophobia, transphobia, misogyny or misandry.

gender identity

one's innermost concept of self as male, female, a blend of both or neither.  It is how individuals perceive themselves and what they call themselves. One's gender identity can be the same or different from their sex assigned at birth.

gender norms

the socially constructed ideals of appropriate behaviors, beliefs and attitudes for women and men. [7]

gender transformative

approaches that seek to transform gender roles and promote more gender-equitable relationships between men and women.

hegemonic masculinity

the current configuration of practice that legitimizes men's dominant position in society and justifies the subordination of women, and other marginalized ways of being a man.


a psychological term for the exaggeration of male stereotypical behavior, such as an emphasis on physical strength, aggression, and sexuality.

man box

a set of beliefs, communicated by parents, families, the media, peers, and other members of society, that place pressure on men to be a certain way. These pressures tell men to be self-sufficient, to act tough, to be physically attractive, to stick to rigid gender roles, to be heterosexual, to have sexual prowess, and to use aggression to resolve conflicts. […] men “in the Man Box” are those who most internalize these messages and pressures. They tell us that “a guy who doesn’t fight back when others push him around is weak,” or that “a gay guy is not a ‘real man’,” among other messages. Young men “outside the Man Box” are those who have broken out of the box, who reject these ideas and instead embrace more positive, original ideas and attitudes about what men should believe and how they should behave.


behaving in ways that are considered appropriate for men and that definition varies in every culture. According to the socialization process for men/ boys, being responsible, taking initiative, pursuing and achieving goals, and loyalty are some commonly accepted and followed norms.


involves viewing and/or treating a person as an object, devoid of thought or feeling. Often, objectification is targeted at women and reduces them to objects of sexual pleasure and gratification.[


literally means “rule of fathers.” It is a social system in which the role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. It implies the institutions of male rule and privilege and entails female subordination.


the ability to recover, perform and transform from situations of adversity. Applied to the education sector it relates to vulnerable individuals achieving learning outcomes and social and emotional well-being even in contexts of overwhelming difficulties.

sexual assault

any non-consensual sexual act proscribed by Federal, tribal, or State law, including when the victim lacks capacity to consent. It can include rape, or any other form of undesired sexual contact which can include but is not limited to forced kissing and unwanted touching of a person’s body.

National Sexual Assault Hotline 800.656.4673

sexual harassment

is any unwelcome behavior of sexual nature by one individual on another. It may be verbal or physical, repeated or done only once. It can occur between people of different genders or those of the same gender and may occur in a variety of relationships.

sexual health

is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. It requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.

social construction (of masculinity and femininity)

refers to the fact that being viewed as a man or a woman in any given society is defined not just by biological traits but also by the unwritten rules or norms about what is expected of us based on our sex.


the way that society shapes the way, we behave, think and socialize with others throughout our lives. This process takes place within our families, communities, schools and with our peers. It also extends to the language we learn and the behavior we model based on television, music and other forms of media and pop culture.


policies, practice methods, and strategies that identify and draw upon the strengths of children, families, and communities. Strengths-based practice involves a shift from a deficit approach, which emphasizes problems and pathology, to a positive partnership with the family.

toxic masculinity

one of the ways in which Patriarchy is harmful to men. It refers to the socially-constructed attitudes that describe the masculine gender role as violent, unemotional and sexually aggressive.